Background: Currently, guidelines do not recommend any standard approach for treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) at outpatient setting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a 90-day anticoagulant treatment of outpatients diagnosed with PTE who had negative troponin levels and low-risk simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) at presentation.
Methods: This prospective cohort study included a total of 206 patients with objectively confirmed acute symptomatic PTE. Any troponin negative (cTn-) and low sPESI patients (as classified Group-1) were treated in outpatient setting. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality during the first 90 days, and the secondary endpoint included non-fatal symptomatic recurrent PTE or non-fatal major bleeding. Presence of cancer was excluded from sPESI score.
Results: Fifty-two of 206 patients were eligible for had Group-1, and 31 were treated at outpatients settings. The 90-day all-cause mortality rate was 3.2 % among patients who received outpatient treatment. Otherwise cTn+ and high-risk sPESI 90-day mortality rate was 43.7 %. No difference was found in terms of secondary endpoints between the patients who received outpatient treatment and those who received inpatient treatment in Group-1 (p = NS). In our study, cancer was present in 16 (51.6 %) of the 31 outpatients.
Conclusion: We observed that patients with acute PTE, low-risk sPESI, and negative troponin levels can be safely treated in the outpatient settings. Also the presence of cancer alone does not necessitate hospitalization.