Treatments for painful osseous metastases may not only diminish pain, but also may improve quality of life and independence/mobility, and reduce skeletal morbidity, potential pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and other "skeletal-related events". Treatment strategies for painful osseous metastases include: Systemic analgesics, intrathecal analgesics, glucocorticoids, radiation (external beam radiation, radiopharmaceuticals), ablative techniques [radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation], bisphosphonates, chemotherapeutic agents, inhibitors of RANKL-RANK interaction (e.g., denosumab), hormonal therapies, interventional techniques (e.g., kyphoplasty), and surgical approaches. The mechanisms underlying the development of bone metastases remain incompletely understood. A greater understanding of the pathophysiology of painful osseous metastases may lead to improved and more selective targeted analgesic therapy. Additionally, potential future therapeutic approaches to painful osseous metastases may revolutionize approaches to analgesia for this condition, leading to optimal outcomes with maximal pain relief and minimal adverse effects.
Keywords: Pain; Triple Opioid Therapy (TOT); bone; cancer; denosumab; metastases; osseous; radiation; radiopharmaceuticals.