Objectives: This systematic review focuses on dietary and lifestyle risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and chemoprevention among high-risk populations.
Methods and materials: We searched PubMed for English-language articles about dietary components, lifestyle risk factors, and chemoprevention agents in relation to colorectal cancer and their references published from 1980 through 2013. We reviewed articles jointly for the most clinically important information, emphasizing randomized trials and meta-analyses where available.
Results: There is convincing evidence that intake of garlic, vitamin B6 and magnesium, active living, maintaining a healthy weight and waist, avoiding or reducing red meat, alcohol, and smoking, as well as hormone replacement therapy among women may significantly protect against developing colorectal cancer. There is less consistent evidence for fruit and vegetable intake (fiber and folate), fish and Omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, dairy, calcium and vitamin D. For high-risk populations, aspirin have been shown to protect against the development of colonic adenomas and CRC, while a minimal effective dose remains unclear.
Conclusions: Colorectal cancer can be prevented in general population through dietary and lifestyle interventions, and aspirin may be a good choice of chemoprevention agent among high risk individuals.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer (CRC); aspirin; chemoprevention; dietary; high risk individuals; lifestyle; meta-analyses; prevention.