Med Clin North Am. 2015 May;99(3):521-34. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.006.


Women generally spend the last third of their lifetime in menopause, after their reproductive years have ended. During menopause, women experience a variety of predictable symptoms and conditions related to changes in sex hormone levels and aging. The menopausal transition precedes menopause by several years and is usually characterized by irregularity of the menstrual cycle and by hot flashes and night sweats. After menopause, genitourinary symptoms predominate, including vulvovaginal atrophy and dryness and lower urinary tract symptoms, including urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia. Hormonal treatment is effective for vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms, but the understanding of its impact on cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and depression continues to evolve.

Keywords: Estrogen; Hormone therapy; Hot flashes; Menopause; Vasomotor symptoms; Vulvovaginal atrophy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Female
  • Female Urogenital Diseases / drug therapy
  • Female Urogenital Diseases / physiopathology
  • Hot Flashes
  • Humans
  • Menopause / drug effects
  • Menopause / physiology*