Association between perfluorinated compound exposure and miscarriage in Danish pregnant women

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 7;10(4):e0123496. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123496. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / chemically induced*
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Denmark
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Female
  • Fluorocarbons / toxicity*
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies

Substances

  • Fluorocarbons

Grant support

This work was supported by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (09-067180), the Danish Council for Strategic Research, Program Commission on Health, Food and Welfare (project 2101-08-0058), the Danish Ministry of Health and the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Municipality of Odense and Odense University Hospital provides core-funding support for the Odense Child Cohort study. Other contributors are: the Mental Health Service in the Region of Southern Denmark, K. A. Rohde’s and wife’s Foundation, the Ronald McDonald Child Foundation, the Health Insurance Foundation and the Odense University Hospital Research Fund. No funders had any influence on design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.