Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) is commonly used with various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and autoimmune disease. Liver cirrhosis is a predominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we show that the therapeutic effect of OD, which was investigated both in vitro and chemically, induced HCC model. OD significantly enhanced apoptosis and antiproliferative activity and reduced migration ability of HCC cells. In vivo, OD was treated twice a day for 28 days after confirmed HCC model through 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) imaging. The survival in OD treated groups was shown to have a greater therapeutic effect than the control group. 28 days after OD treatment, OD treated groups resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number, size, (18)F-FDG uptake, and serum levels such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphate compared to the control group. Also, proliferated cells in tumor sites by OD were reduced compared to the control group. Furthermore, several rats in OD treated group survived over 60 days and liver morphology of these rats showed the difference between tumor mass and normal tissue. These results suggest that OD may have antiproliferative activity, inhibition of metastasis, and apoptotic effects in chemically induced HCC model and can have the potential use for clinical application as anticancer drug of the herbal extract.