Effect of fruit vinegars on liver damage and oxidative stress in high-fat-fed rats

Pharm Biol. 2016;54(2):260-5. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1031910. Epub 2015 Apr 8.


Context: Vinegar has long been used as a condiment and a traditional medicine worldwide.

Objective: The current study investigates the antioxidant effect of three types of fruit vinegars (FV) namely pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)] vinegars in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats.

Materials and methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups; HFD (80 cal/d) fed rats were orally dosed with fruit vinegars (7 ml/kg) once daily for 28 weeks. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements were assessed in serum. In addition, a liver histopathological study was performed.

Results: HFD showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in lipid profile and TBARS levels when compared with normal control. Daily oral administration of FV normalized various biochemical, metabolic, and histopathological changes. However, pomegranate vinegar exhibited a very significant (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in lipid profile levels (total cholesterol: 165%, triglycerides: 68%, LDL-c: 76%, and atherogenic index: 80%), whereas an increase in antioxidant status (SOD: 7-fold, GPx: 4.81-fold, GRx: 1.66-fold, and TAS: 3.45-fold) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective effects of pomegranate vinegar against lipid accumulation and the improvement of hepatic lesions.

Discussion and conclusion: The fruit vinegars regulate lipid metabolism and decrease liver damage in high-fat fed rats as shown in this study.

Keywords: Antihyperlipidemic effect; antioxidant effect; apple; pomegranate; prickly pear.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / isolation & purification
  • Acetic Acid / pharmacology
  • Acetic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dyslipidemias / etiology
  • Dyslipidemias / metabolism
  • Dyslipidemias / pathology
  • Dyslipidemias / prevention & control*
  • Fermentation
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Male
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Antioxidants
  • Dietary Fats
  • Polyphenols
  • Acetic Acid