Intraoperative cerebral angiosonography with ultrasound contrast agents: how I do it

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015 Jun;157(6):1025-9. doi: 10.1007/s00701-015-2412-x. Epub 2015 Apr 9.


Background: Intraoperative vessel visualization is highly desirable, especially when the target is related to or close to main vessels, such as in the skull base and vascular surgery. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an imaging technique that allows visualization of tissue perfusion and vascularization through the infusion of purely intravascular ultrasound contrast agents (UCA).

Methods: After cerebral scanning with B-mode ultrasound (US) CEUS is performed, UCA are injected and insonated with low mechanical index US. A UCA-specific harmonic signal is transduced using a contrast-specific algorithm to obtain real-time angiosonography (ASG).

Conclusions: Real-time intraoperative ASG is a rapid, reliable, repeatable method for vessel visualization and evaluation of tissue perfusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain / blood supply*
  • Cerebral Arteries / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cerebral Veins / diagnostic imaging*
  • Contrast Media*
  • Humans
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods*
  • Ultrasonography


  • Contrast Media