Increased intake of selected vegetables, herbs and fruit may reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal women

Nutrients. 2015 Apr 8;7(4):2499-517. doi: 10.3390/nu7042499.


Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥ 9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (-3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (-0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Bone Density
  • Bone Remodeling*
  • Bone Resorption / diet therapy
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Calcium, Dietary / urine
  • Collagen Type I / blood
  • Electrolytes / urine
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Peptide Fragments / blood
  • Peptides / blood
  • Polyphenols / administration & dosage
  • Postmenopause*
  • Potassium, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Potassium, Dietary / urine
  • Procollagen / blood
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vegetables*


  • Biomarkers
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Collagen Type I
  • Electrolytes
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Peptides
  • Polyphenols
  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Procollagen
  • collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide
  • procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide