Direct human brain recordings have transformed the scope of neuroscience in the past decade. Progress has relied upon currently available neurophysiological approaches in the context of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures for medical treatment. While this setting has provided precious opportunities for scientific research, it also has presented significant constraints on the development of new neurotechnologies. A major challenge now is how to achieve high-resolution spatiotemporal neural recordings at a large scale. By narrowing the gap between current approaches, new directions tailored to the mesoscopic (intermediate) scale of resolution may overcome the barriers towards safe and reliable human-based neurotechnology development, with major implications for advancing both basic research and clinical translation.
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