Prevalence of micro and macrovascular complications and their risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus

J Assoc Physicians India. 2014 Jun;62(6):504-8.


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of micro and macrovascular complications in type-2 diabetes in Northwest India and its correlation with various risk factors.

Methods: In this study, total 11,157 subjects (M:F 6661:4496), attending the diabetic clinic, were analysed. The study sample resembles the population sample in anthropometric, age and socioeconomic factors. All patients had undergone the test for retinopathy by fundus examination, nephropathy by microalbuminuria, serum creatinine and blood urea, neuropathy by monofilament and biothesiometer, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) by colour doppler and cardiovascular disease by ECG.

Results: Among 11,157 subjects, retinopathy was diagnosed in 32.5%, nephropathy was present in 30.2%, peripheral neuropathy was present in 26.8%, coronary heart disease (CHD) was present in 25.8% and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was present in 28% of the subjects. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that age had a significant association with retinopathy, neuropathy, coronary heart disease (CHD) and peripheral vascular diseases (PVD). Duration of diabetes had significant association with the neuropathy, nephropathy and PVD. Higher HbA1C increases the risk of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Hypertension was associated with nephropathy and coronary heart disease.

Conclusion: The study highlights the high prevalence of vascular complications in type-2 diabetes in Northwest India. Retinopathy and nephropathy were the commonest complications of diabetes in our study.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors