Effect of surface treatments on the biaxial flexural strength, phase transformation, and surface roughness of bilayered porcelain/zirconia dental ceramics

J Prosthet Dent. 2015 Jun;113(6):585-95. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.12.002. Epub 2015 Apr 7.


Statement of problem: Veneered zirconia restorations are widely used in prosthetic applications. However, these restorations often fail because of chipping of the veneer porcelain. Surface treatments of zirconia core materials may affect the connection between the 2 layers.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on the biaxial flexural strength, phase transformation, and mean surface roughness of different bilayered porcelain/zirconia ceramics.

Material and methods: Forty disk-shaped specimens were obtained for each material (Kavo and Noritake) and divided into 4 (n=10) groups (control, airborne-particle abraded, ground, and ground and airborne-particle abraded). Airborne-particle abrasion was performed with 110-μm Al2O3 particles for 15 seconds and at 400 kPa. Diamond rotary instruments with 100-μm grain size were used for grinding. The monoclinic phase transformation and surface roughness of the specimens were measured. Then, the specimens were veneered and subjected to a biaxial flexural strength test to calculate the Weibull moduli (m values) and the stresses occurring at the layers, outer surfaces of the bilayer, and interfaces of the layers.

Results: The Kavo airborne-particle abraded group showed higher strength values in both layers (P<.05) than those of all experimental groups. The Kavo airborne-particle abraded group showed the lowest m values at the core and veneer layers. According to the phase analysis, significantly higher Xm values were found in the ground and airborne-particle abraded groups for both materials (P<.05). In both materials, except in the airborne-particle abraded groups, the relative monoclinic phases showed no difference (P<.05).

Conclusion: Surface treatments affected the phase transformation, surface roughness, and biaxial flexural strength of Kavo and Noritake zirconia ceramics differently. Surface treatments increased the relative monoclinic phase content and average surface roughness.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Aluminum Oxide / chemistry
  • Ceramics / chemistry*
  • Dental Etching / methods
  • Dental Materials / chemistry*
  • Dental Polishing / instrumentation
  • Dental Porcelain / chemistry*
  • Dental Veneers*
  • Diamond / chemistry
  • Elastic Modulus
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Particle Size
  • Pliability
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Surface Properties
  • Yttrium / chemistry*
  • Zirconium / chemistry*


  • Dental Materials
  • yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia
  • Dental Porcelain
  • Yttrium
  • Diamond
  • Zirconium
  • Aluminum Oxide