Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major cause of bloodstream infections worldwide, and HIV-infected persons and malaria-infected children are at increased risk for the disease. We conducted a systematic literature review to obtain age group-specific, population-based invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) incidence data. Data were categorized by HIV and malaria prevalence and then extrapolated by using 2010 population data. The case-fatality ratio (CFR) was determined by expert opinion consensus. We estimated that 3.4 (range 2.1-6.5) million cases of iNTS disease occur annually (overall incidence 49 cases [range 30-94] per 100,000 population). Africa, where infants, young children, and young adults are most affected, has the highest incidence (227 cases [range 152-341] per 100,000 population) and number of cases (1.9 [range 1.3-2.9] million cases). An iNTS CFR of 20% yielded 681,316 (range 415,164-1,301,520) deaths annually. iNTS disease is a major cause of illness and death globally, particularly in Africa. Improved understanding of the epidemiology of iNTS is needed.
Keywords: Salmonella; bacteremia; bacteria; global burden; incidence; invasive disease; nontyphoidal Salmonella disease.