Normal Muscle Structure, Growth, Development, and Regeneration

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2015 Jun;8(2):176-81. doi: 10.1007/s12178-015-9267-x.


Knowledge about biochemical, structural and physiological aspects, and properties regarding the skeletal muscle has been widely obtained in the last decades. Muscle disorders, mainly represented in neuromuscular clinical practice by acquired and hereditary myopathies, are well-recognized and frequently diagnosed in practice. Most clinical complaints and biochemical characterizations of each myopathy depends on the appropriate knowledge and interpretation of pathological findings and their comparison with normal muscle findings. Great improvement has been obtained in the last decades mainly involving the mechanisms of normal muscle architecture and physiological function in the healthy individuals. Genetic mechanisms have also been widely studied. We provide an extensive literature review involving current knowledge regarding muscle cell structure and function and embryological and regenerative processes linked to muscle lesion. An updated comprehensive description involving the main nuclear genomic regulatory mechanisms of muscle regeneration and embryogenesis is provided in this review.