Purpose: To test whether the polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX HP) fiber column reduces mortality and organ failure in peritonitis-induced septic shock (SS) from abdominal infections.
Method: Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in 18 French intensive care units from October 2010 to March 2013, enrolling 243 patients with SS within 12 h after emergency surgery for peritonitis related to organ perforation. The PMX HP group received conventional therapy plus two sessions of PMX HP. Primary outcome was mortality on day 28; secondary outcomes were mortality on day 90 and a reduction in the severity of organ failures based on Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores.
Primary outcome: day 28 mortality in the PMX HP group (n = 119) was 27.7 versus 19.5% in the conventional group (n = 113), p = 0.14 (OR 1.5872, 95% CI 0.8583-2.935). Secondary endpoints: mortality rate at day 90 was 33.6% in PMX-HP versus 24% in conventional groups, p = 0.10 (OR 1.6128, 95% CI 0.9067-2.8685); reduction in SOFA score from day 0 to day 7 was -5 (-11 to 6) in PMX-HP versus -5 (-11 to 9), p = 0.78. Comparable results were observed in the predefined subgroups (presence of comorbidity; adequacy of surgery, <2 sessions of hemoperfusion) and for SOFA reduction from day 0 to day 3.
Conclusion: This multicenter randomized controlled study demonstrated a non-significant increase in mortality and no improvement in organ failure with PMX HP treatment compared to conventional treatment of peritonitis-induced SS.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01222663.