Objective: To determine whether 1,5-anhydroglucitol is predictive of neonatal birth weight.
Study design: A retrospective cohort study including 85 pregnancies complicated by diabetes (Type 1=37, Type 2=24, gestational=24). Women had simultaneous hemoglobin A1c and 1,5-anhydroglucitol measurements every 4-8 weeks throughout pregnancy until delivery. Neonatal birth weight was evaluated by standardized z-scores. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine an association of 1,5-anhydroglucitol with neonatal birth weight z-score.
Results: Type 1 diabetic patients had the lowest mean 1,5-anhydroglucitol of 3.5mcg/mL (SD=1.6mcg/mL) and highest mean hemoglobin A1c of 6.5% (SD=0.74%) compared to gestational diabetic patients who had the highest mean 1,5-anhydroglucitol of 6.7mcg/mL (SD=3.8mcg/mL) and lowest mean hemoglobin A1c of 6.0% (SD=0.94%). Mean 1,5-anhydroglucitol values were significantly different between diabetes types (p<0.01). Mean neonatal birth weight was above population averages for all diabetes classifications, although mean birth weight z-scores did not differ significantly between diabetic types (p=0.38). Multivariate linear regression showed a negative association between log-transformed 1,5-anhydroglucitol and birth weight (coefficient -0.82, 95% CI -1.19, -0.46).
Conclusion: In pregnancies complicated by diabetes, low 1,5-anhydroglucitol was associated with increased neonatal birth weight. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol may be useful in the assessment of glycemic control in pregnancy in addition to A1c.
Keywords: 1,5-Anhydroglucitol; Diabetes; Neonatal birth weight; Pregnancy.
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