Advances and challenges in mucosal adjuvant technology

Vaccine. 2015 May 15;33(21):2399-405. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.096. Epub 2015 Apr 10.


Adjuvants play attractive roles in enhancement of immune response during vaccination; however, due to several challenges, only a limited number of adjuvants are licensed by health authorities. The lack of an effective mucosal adjuvant is even more significant as none of the licensed adjuvants revealed a strong enhancement in immune system after mucosal administration. Over the past two decades, several mucosal adjuvants have been developed to deliver antigens to the target cells in the mucosal immune system and increase specific immune responses. However, the safety and efficacy of these adjuvants for testing in human trials is still an important issue, requiring further study. In this article, we briefly review the challenges associated with most common mucosal adjuvants and discuss potential strategies for targeting the mucosal immune system.

Keywords: Adjuvants; Immune response; Mucosal vaccines; Nanoparticles.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Administration, Mucosal
  • Biomedical Research / trends
  • Humans
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Vaccines