Intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng extract in bovine mammary gland at cessation of milking induces changes in the expression of toll-like receptors, MyD88 and NF-kB during early involution

Res Vet Sci. 2015 Jun:100:52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.03.025. Epub 2015 Mar 28.


The purposes of this study were to explore TLR2 and TLR4 participation and MyD88 and NF-κB activation in bovine mammary glands (BMG) treated with Panax ginseng (PG) at involution and verify the effect of PG in the cytokine expression. Quarters were infused at the end of lactation with PG solution (3 mg/ml), placebo or kept as uninoculated controls. Cows were slaughtered at 7 d after cessation of milking and mammary tissue samples were taken. A significant increase of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression was observed in PG-treated quarters. Immunostaining of TLR2 and TLR4 was significantly higher in PG mammary tissues. The percentages of immunopositive cells for NF-κB-p65 were significantly higher in PG-treated quarters. The BMG responded to PG extract components possibly by TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway. These results provide an insight into potential mechanisms by which PG stimulates innate immunity during BMG involution.

Keywords: Bovine mammary gland; Involution; Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); Panax ginseng; Toll-like receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / drug effects*
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / genetics*
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / genetics*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Panax / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptors / genetics*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors