Rationale: Around 30% of the infertile women worldwide have associated Fallopian tubes pathology. Unfortunately, for a long time, this aspect of infertility has been neglected due to the possibility of bypassing this deadlock through IVF.
Objective: Up to date free full text literature was reviewed, meaning 4 major textbooks and around 100 articles centered on tubal infertility, in order to raise the awareness on this subject.
Methods and results: The anatomy of the Fallopian tube is complex starting from its embryological development and continuing with its vascular supply and ciliated microstructure, that is the key to the process of egg transport to the site of fertilization. There are many strongly documented causes of tubal infertility: infections (Chlamydia Trachomatis, Gonorrhea, and genital tuberculosis), intrauterine contraceptive devices, endometriosis, and complications after abdominal surgery, etc.
Discussions: Although there are still many controversies about the etiology of tubal sterility with the advent of molecular diagnosis of infections there has been cleared the pathway of infection through endometriosis or through ciliary immobility towards the tubal obstruction.
Keywords: Fallopian; anatomy; etiology; infertility; tubes.