Influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth performance, innate immune response, biochemical parameters and disease resistance in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015 Jun;41(3):721-31. doi: 10.1007/s10695-015-0041-1. Epub 2015 Apr 14.


The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on rainbow trout growth performance, innate immunity and biochemical parameters were studied. Rainbow trout (17-18 g) were exposed to electromagnetic fields (15 Hz) at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT, for 1 h daily over period of 60 days. Growth performance of fish improved in different treatment groups, especially at 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT. Immunological parameters, specifically hemagglutinating titer, total antiprotease and α1-antiprotease levels in treatment groups, were also enhanced. Total protein and globulin contents in the serum of fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT were significantly higher than those in the control group. No significant differences were found in serum enzyme activities, namely aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of fish in all treatment groups. Conversely, alkaline phosphatase level decreased in fish exposed to 0.01 and 50 µT electromagnetic fields. Meanwhile, electromagnetic induction at 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT enhanced fish protection against Yersinia ruckeri. These results indicated that these specific electromagnetic fields had possible effects on growth performance, nonspecific immunity and disease resistance of rainbow trout.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / blood
  • Animals
  • Aquaculture / methods
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Electromagnetic Fields*
  • Growth and Development / radiation effects*
  • Hemagglutination / radiation effects
  • Immunity, Innate / radiation effects*
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss / physiology*
  • Protease Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Yersinia ruckeri / immunology


  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase
  • Alkaline Phosphatase