Gas nanobubbles and aqueous nanostructures: the crucial role of dynamization

Homeopathy. 2015 Apr;104(2):101-15. doi: 10.1016/j.homp.2015.02.001. Epub 2015 Mar 13.


Nanobubbles (NBs) have been a subject of intensive research over the past decade. Their peculiar characteristics, including extremely low buoyancy, longevity, enhanced solubility of oxygen in water, zeta potentials and burst during collapse, have led to many applications in the industrial, biological and medical fields. NBs may form spontaneously from dissolved gas but the process is greatly enhanced by gas supersaturation and mechanical actions such as dynamization. Therefore, the formation of NBs during the preparation of homeopathic dilutions under atmospheric pressure cannot be ignored. I suggested in 2009 the involvement of NBs in nanometric superstructures revealed in high dilutions using NMR relaxation. These superstructures seemed to increase in size with dilution, well into the ultramolecular range (>12c). I report here new experiments that confirm the involvement of NBs and prove the crucial role of dynamization to create superstructures specific to the solute. A second dynamization was shown to enhance or regenerate these superstructures. I postulate that superstructures result from a nucleation process of NBs around the solute, with shells of highly organized water (with ions and silicates if any) which protect the solute against out-diffusion and behave as nucleation centres for further dilution steps. The sampling tip may play an active role by catching the superstructures and thus carry the encaged solute across the dilution range, possibly up to the ultramolecular range. The superstructures were not observed at low dilution, probably because of a destructuring of the solvent by the solute and/or of an inadequate gas/solute ratio.

Keywords: Dynamization; NMR relaxation; Nanobubbles; Nanostructures; Ultrahigh dilution; Water.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Homeopathy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Nanostructures / chemistry*
  • Solutions
  • Solvents / chemistry*


  • Solutions
  • Solvents