Significant advancements in vision screening research are leading to improved design, functionality, and reliability of screening tools. Presently, two vision screening approaches are available to school nurses for children ages 3 years and older: optotype-based screening and instrument-based screening. Optotype-based screening pertains to tests of visual acuity using optotypes (e.g., pictures, letters, and numbers), which children identify to determine visual acuity. Instrument-based screening pertains to automated devices that measure amblyogenic risk factors, such as refractive error, media opacities, and eye misalignment. Differences between the two approaches; best and acceptable practice recommendations for both approaches; unacceptable tests of visual acuity; and best, acceptable, and unacceptable occluders are described.
Keywords: HOTV; LEA symbols; Sloan letters; instrument-based screening; occluders; optotype-based screening; preschool vision screening; school-age vision screening.
© 2015 The Author(s).