Influence of light exposure and oxidative status on the stability of vitamins A and D₃ during the storage of fortified soybean oil

Food Chem. 2015 Oct 1:184:90-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.096. Epub 2015 Mar 28.


Food fortification is implemented to address vitamins A and D deficiencies in numerous countries. The stability of vitamins A and D3 was assessed during a two-month period reproducing the usual oil storage conditions before sale to consumers. Soybean oils with different oxidative status and vitamin E contents were stored in the dark, semi-dark, or exposed to natural light. Lipid peroxidation took place after 3 weeks of storage in dark conditions. After 2 months, the vitamin A and D3 losses reached 60-68% and 61-68%, respectively, for oils exposed to natural light, and 32-39% and 24-44% in semi-dark conditions. The determining factors of vitamin A and D3 losses were (in decreasing order) the storage time, the exposure to light and the oxidative status of the oil, whereas vitamin E content had a protective role. Improving these parameters is thus essential to make vitamins A and D fortification in oils more efficient.

Keywords: Cholecalciferol; Cholecalciferol (PubChem CID: 5280795); Isomerisation; Light exposure; Overage; Peroxide; Retinol; Retinyl palmitate; Retinyl palmitate (PubChem CID: 5280531); Tocopherol; α-Tocopherol (PubChem CID: 14985).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cholecalciferol / chemistry*
  • Food Storage
  • Food, Fortified / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Light*
  • Lipid Peroxidation*
  • Soybean Oil / analysis*
  • Vitamin A / chemistry*


  • Vitamin A
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Soybean Oil