Goblet cells and their main secretory product, mucus, have long been poorly appreciated; however, recent discoveries have changed this and placed these cells at the center stage of our understanding of mucosal biology and the immunology of the intestinal tract. The mucus system differs substantially between the small and large intestine, although it is built around MUC2 mucin polymers in both cases. Furthermore, that goblet cells and the regulation of their secretion also differ between these two parts of the intestine is of fundamental importance for a better understanding of mucosal immunology. There are several types of goblet cell that can be delineated based on their location and function. The surface colonic goblet cells secrete continuously to maintain the inner mucus layer, whereas goblet cells of the colonic and small intestinal crypts secrete upon stimulation, for example, after endocytosis or in response to acetyl choline. However, despite much progress in recent years, our understanding of goblet cell function and regulation is still in its infancy.