Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014

J Gynecol Oncol. 2015 Apr;26(2):156-67. doi: 10.3802/jgo.2015.26.2.156.

Abstract

In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

Keywords: Angiogenesis Inhibitor; Breast Neoplasm; Early Detection of Cancer; Leiomyosarcoma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research / trends*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery
  • Female
  • Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery