Laboratory models support an inverse association between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and breast tumor development. Human studies are lacking; one study (N = 105 cases, 204 controls) with prospectively collected serum reported the opposite-an approximate 10-fold increase in breast cancer risk comparing fourth with first quartile AMH levels. We investigated the relation between serum AMH levels and breast cancer risk in a case-control (N = 452 cases, 902 controls) study nested within the prospective Sister Study cohort of 50,884 women. At enrollment, participants were ages 35 to 54, premenopausal, and completed questionnaires on medical and family history, lifestyle factors, and demographics. AMH (ng/mL) was measured by ultrasensitive ELISA in serum collected at enrollment and log-transformed for analysis. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to account for matching on age and enrollment year. Mean age at enrollment was 46.8 years with an average 2.9 years from blood draw to breast cancer diagnosis (SD = 1.9). AMH concentrations were below the limit of detection (0.003 ng/mL) for approximately 25% of samples. Compared with samples below the LOD, women with AMH >2.84 ng/mL (90th percentile among controls) had a 2-fold increase in breast cancer odds (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.26-4.02). For each 1-unit increase in lnAMH, overall breast cancer odds increased by 8% (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15) and odds of estrogen receptor-positive, invasive disease increased by 15% (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25). Our findings demonstrate an overall positive relation between AMH and breast cancer.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.