Long-term outcomes of survivors of ICU acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy: a 10-year prospective cohort study

Clin Kidney J. 2012 Aug;5(4):297-302. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfs070.


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) is associated with high in-hospital morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Long-term outcomes have received little attention.

Methods: The aim of this study was to characterize AKI-chronic kidney disease (CKD) nexus in critically ill patients with AKI (RIFLE class F). We performed a single-centre prospective observational study of 425 consecutive critically ill patients with AKI requiring RRT. None of these patients had pre-existing kidney disease. Primary outcomes were vital status and renal function at hospital discharge and at 5 and 10 years of follow-up.

Results: The overall in-hospital mortality of the study cohort was 47%, the mortality rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 65, 75 and 80%, respectively. At hospital discharge, recovery of renal function was complete in 56% of survivors. None of these patients developed CKD during follow-up. Ninety percent of the 100 survivors with partial recovery of renal function had ongoing CKD during long-term follow-up. CKD progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 12 patients (3% of the cohort or 5% of survivors). The patients with post-AKICKD had a higher prevalence of hypertension, a higher rate of fatal cardiac diseases and a higher all-cause death rate.

Conclusion: Long-term survival of critically ill patients with AKI requiring RRT is poor and determined by the development of de novo CKD. There is a need for close follow-up of patients surviving AKI to prevent progressive CKD and to reduce associated lethal cardiac events.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; long-term mortality; risk of chronic kidney disease; survival.