Rosiglitzone suppresses angiotensin II-induced production of KLF5 and cell proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 14;10(4):e0123724. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123724. eCollection 2015.


Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 5, which initiates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, also participates in Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced vascular remodeling. The protective effect of rosiglitazone on vascular remodeling may be due to their impact on VSMC proliferation. However, the underlying mechanisms involved remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether the antiproliferation effects of rosiglitazone are mediated by regulating Ang II/KLF5 response. We found that, in aortas of Ang II-infused rats, vascular remodeling and KLF5 expression were markedly increased, and its target gene cyclin D1 was overexpressed. Co-treatment with rosiglitazone diminished these changes. In growth-arrested VSMCs, PPAR-γ agonists (rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2) dose-dependently inhibited Ang II-induced cell proliferation and expression of KLF5 and cyclin D1. Moreover, these effects were attenuated by the PPAR-γ antagonists GW9662, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and PPAR-γ specific siRNA. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited Ang II-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) ζ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and activation of early growth response protein (Egr). In conclusion, in Ang II-stimulated VSMCs, rosiglitazone might have an antiproliferative effect through mechanisms that include reducing KLF5 expression, and a crosstalk between PPAR-γ and PKCζ/ERK1/2/Egr may be involved in. These findings not only provide a previously unrecognized mechanism by which PPAR-γ agonists inhibit VSMC proliferation, but also document a novel evidence for the beneficial vascular effect of PPAR-γ activation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / pharmacology*
  • Anilides / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cyclin D1 / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / cytology
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / metabolism
  • PPAR gamma / agonists
  • PPAR gamma / antagonists & inhibitors
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Prostaglandin D2 / analogs & derivatives
  • Prostaglandin D2 / pharmacology
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology*


  • 15-deoxyprostaglandin J2
  • 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide
  • Anilides
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Klf5 protein, rat
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • PPAR gamma
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Angiotensin II
  • Cyclin D1
  • protein kinase C eta
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Prostaglandin D2

Grant support

This work was supported by a grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30900617 to DG), the science and technology project of Shaanxi Province (No. 2014k11-02-01-12 to NN), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (to DG). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.