A β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans (AP-PG) is consisting of a β-(1,3)-linked main chain with β-(1,6)-linked glucose side residues. Various β-glucans consisting of β-(1,3)-linked main chain including AP-PG are believed to exhibit anti-tumor activities, and actually, anti-tumor activities of AP-PG in mice have been demonstrated. In this study, we demonstrate that stimulation with AP-PG induces TRAIL expression in mouse and human macrophage-like cell lines. TRAIL is known to be a cytokine which specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells, but not in untransformed cells. The expression of TRAIL mRNA after stimulation with AP-PG was increased in RAW264.7 cells, Mono Mac 6 cells, and macrophage-differentiated THP-1 cells. The mRNA expression of TNF-α and FasL is only weakly increased after stimulation with AP-PG. The induction activity of TRAIL by curdlan, a bacterial β-glucan, was very similar to that by AP-PG in RAW264.7 cells, but weaker in macrophage-differentiated THP-1 cells. Activation of caspases was found in HeLa cells after treatment with the supernatant of cultured medium from AP-PG-stimulated Mono Mac 6 cells, and was inhibited by the anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. These findings suggest that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces TRAIL in macrophages, and that it may be related to apoptosis induction of tumor cells.