In addition to its roles in controlling infection and tissue repair, inflammation plays a critical role in diverse and distinct chronic diseases, such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative disorders, underscoring the harmful effect of an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, initiation of the inflammatory response is mediated by assembly of a multimolecular protein complex called the inflammasome, which is responsible for the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. The different stimuli and mechanisms that control inflammasome activation are fairly well understood, but the mechanisms underlying the control of undesired inflammasome activation and its inactivation remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that negatively regulate inflammasome activation to prevent unwanted activation in the resting state, as well as those involved in terminating the inflammatory response after a specific insult to maintain homeostasis.
Keywords: Caspase-1; IL-18; IL-1β; NLRP; inflammasome; inflammation.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.