The effect of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Feb 11;57(3):602-612. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2014.901292.


The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for or against the effectiveness of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) on body weight, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, and the Cochrane Clinical Trials databases to identify relevant human randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Hand searches of bibliographies were also conducted. Only overweight and obese subjects were included. The reporting quality was assessed using the CONSORT checklist, and the strength of the overall body of evidence was rated based on the GRADE criteria. One hundred and fifty four citations were identified and three RCTs with a total of 250 participants were included. The RCTs were of moderate quality. A meta-analysis for change in body weight failed to reveal a significant difference between grapefruits and controls, MD: -0.45 kg (95% CI: -1.06 to 0.16; I2 = 53%, but analysis revealed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure, MD: -2.43 mmHg (95% CI: -4.77 to -0.09; I2 = 0%). Paucity in the number of RCTs, short durations of interventions, and lack of an established minimum effective dose limit the conclusions that can be drawn about the effects of grapefruit on body weight and metabolic parameters. Further clinical trials evaluating the effects of grapefruit are warranted.

Keywords: Grapefruit; body composition; body weight; meta-analysis; randomized clinical trial.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Weight*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Citrus paradisi*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Humans
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Overweight / epidemiology
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol