Effect of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta), unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) or their combination on glycated hemoglobin, lipogenic enzymes, and lipid metabolism of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Pharm Biol. 2016;54(1):91-7. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1016181. Epub 2015 Apr 16.


Context: The possibility of combining unripe plantain [Musa paradisiacae Linn (Plantaginaceae)] and cocoyam [Colocassia esculenta Linn (Araceae)] in the management of diabetes has not been investigated.

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic actions of unripe plantain and cocoyam.

Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg body weight). Twelve days after STZ induction, respective groups of diabetic rats were fed cocoyam (810 g/kg), unripe plantain (810 g/kg), and unripe plantain + cocoyam (405:405 g/kg) for 28 d. Body weights, feed intake, biochemical parameters, namely serum glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, coronary risk index, triacylglycerol, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), hepatic isocitrate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of the rats and phytochemical composition of the test and standard rat feeds were measured.

Results and discussion: Cocoyam or unripe plantain alone significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the body weights (18.89 and 19.95% decreases, respectively) and biochemical parameters as compared with those of STZ controls (31.21% decrease). While combination of cocoyam and unripe plantain significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the biochemical parameters of the rats (except HbA1C), it did not ameliorate their body weights (28.53% decrease). The feed intake of the experimental rats did not differ from each other (p > 0.05) at the end of experimentation and the feed samples contained considerable amounts of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins.

Conclusion: Cocoyam or unripe plantain alone showed better antihyperglycemic and anihyperlipidemic action than their combination.

Keywords: Diabetic complications; incorporated feeds; lipid profile; phytochemicals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Colocasia / chemistry*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / enzymology
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Fruit
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Lipids / blood
  • Lipogenesis / drug effects*
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Malate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Male
  • Musa / chemistry*
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Streptozocin


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipids
  • Plant Extracts
  • Streptozocin
  • Malate Dehydrogenase
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase