Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

Fertil Steril. 2015 Jun;103(6):1402-6. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.03.011. Epub 2015 Apr 14.


Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples' fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age.

Keywords: Male infertility; genetics.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / epidemiology*
  • Abortion, Spontaneous / genetics*
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aging / genetics*
  • Biological Clocks
  • Congenital Abnormalities / epidemiology*
  • Congenital Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Paternal Age
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy Outcome / genetics*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors