Purpose: To define imaging manifestations and clinical prognosis of cervical lymph node hyperplasia using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) scanning after treatment of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma.
Methods: Children and adolescent patients with malignant lymphoma who had high FDG uptake in their cervical lymph nodes via PET/CT after treatment, which was not due to tumor recurrence or residue, were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Twenty-seven patients with a median age of 12 years were included; 11 had Hodgkin's disease and 16 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The time from PET/CT scan to completion of therapy was 1-36 months, 85.2% (23/27) of which took place within 12 months. Three patients had confirmed lymph node follicular hyperplasia by biopsy, while all 27 patients achieved disease-free survival during the follow-up period. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of cervical lymph nodes were 2.2-16.2 and the maximum short axis ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 cm. Cervical lymph node hyperplasia was noted in neck levels I-V, and neck level II bilaterally had the highest incidence (100%). Bilateral cervical lymph node hyperplasia was symmetrical in terms of both the SUVmax and affected locations. Thymic hyperplasia and nasopharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia were both observed in 24 patients (88.9%). There was no relationship in terms of the SUVmax between cervical lymph nodes and thymic tissue, cervical nodes or nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue.
Conclusion: Cervical lymph node hyperplasia with high FDG uptake on PET/CT scans found after treating children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma can be benign processes. Awareness of this possibility may help avoid invasive procedures and over-treatment.
Keywords: Cervical lymph node; Children and adolescents; Hyperplasia; Lymphoma.; PET/CT.
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