Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:813737. doi: 10.1155/2015/813737. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Abstract

Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ammonium Chloride / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Calcium / analysis
  • Calcium / urine
  • Catechin / pharmacology
  • Ethylene Glycol / toxicity
  • Grape Seed Extract / chemistry
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced
  • Kidney Diseases / pathology*
  • Kidney Diseases / prevention & control
  • Lithiasis / chemically induced
  • Lithiasis / pathology
  • Lithiasis / prevention & control
  • Magnesium / analysis
  • Magnesium / urine
  • Male
  • Phosphorus / analysis
  • Phosphorus / urine
  • Polyphenols / isolation & purification
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology*
  • Polyphenols / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Vitis / chemistry*
  • Vitis / metabolism

Substances

  • Grape Seed Extract
  • Polyphenols
  • Ammonium Chloride
  • Phosphorus
  • Catechin
  • Ethylene Glycol
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium