Objective: This mechanistic trial compared the pharmacodynamics and safety of lixisenatide and liraglutide in combination with optimized insulin glargine with/without metformin in type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Research design and methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, three-arm trial comparing lixisenatide 20 µg and liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg once daily for 8 weeks in combination with insulin glargine after optimized titration. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 8 in incremental area under the postprandial plasma glucose curve for 4 h after a standardized solid breakfast (AUC PPG0030-0430 h). Changes from baseline in gastric emptying, 24-h plasma glucose profile, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 24-h ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure, amylase and lipase levels, and adverse events (AEs) were also assessed.
Results: In total, 142 patients were randomized and treated. Lixisenatide 20 µg achieved greater reductions of AUC PPG0030-0430 h compared with liraglutide (marginal mean [95% one-sided CI] treatment difference, -6.0 [-7.8] h ⋅ mmol/L [-108.3 (-140.0) h ⋅ mg/dL] vs. liraglutide 1.2 mg and -4.6 [-6.3] h ⋅ mmol/L [-83.0 (-114.2) h ⋅ mg/dL] vs. liraglutide 1.8 mg; P < 0.001 for both), and gastric emptying was delayed to a greater extent than with liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg (P < 0.001 for treatment comparisons). FPG was unchanged in all treatment arms. At week 8, mean ± SD HbA1c was 6.2 ± 0.4% (44 ± 5 mmol/mol), 6.1 ± 0.3% (44 ± 4 mmol/mol), and 6.1 ± 0.3% (44 ± 4 mmol/mol) for lixisenatide 20 µg and liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg, respectively. At week 8, both liraglutide doses increased marginal mean ± SE 24-h heart rate from baseline by 9 ± 1 bpm vs. 3 ± 1 bpm with lixisenatide (P < 0.001). Occurrence of symptomatic hypoglycemia was higher with lixisenatide; gastrointestinal AEs were more common with liraglutide. Lipase levels were significantly increased from baseline with liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg (marginal mean ± SE increase 21 ± 7 IU/L for both; P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Lixisenatide and liraglutide improved glycemic control in optimized insulin glargine-treated T2D albeit with contrasting mechanisms of action and differing safety profiles.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01596504.
© 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.