Endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus regulates neurohormonal excitation in high salt-induced hypertension

Toxicol Lett. 2015 Jun 15;235(3):206-15. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.04.008. Epub 2015 Apr 16.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain plays an important role in the progression of hypertension and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major component of ROS. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous H2O2 changed by polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT) and aminotriazole (ATZ) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates neurotransmitters, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and cytokines, and whether subsequently affects the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in high salt-induced hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) or a normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl) for 10 weeks. Then rats were treated with bilateral PVN microinjection of PEG-CAT (0.2 i.u./50nl), an analog of endogenous catalase, the catalase inhibitor ATZ (10nmol/50nl) or vehicle. High salt-fed rats had significantly increased MAP, RSNA, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs). In addition, rats with high-salt diet had higher levels of NOX-2, NOX-4 (subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), glutamate and NE, and lower levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the PVN than normal diet rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of PEG-CAT attenuated the levels of RAS and restored the balance of neurotransmitters and cytokines, while microinjection of ATZ into the PVN augmented those changes occurring in hypertensive rats. Our findings demonstrate that ROS component H2O2 in the PVN regulating MAP and RSNA are partly due to modulate neurotransmitters, renin-angiotensin system, and cytokines within the PVN in salt-induced hypertension.

Keywords: Cytokines; Hypertension; Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus; Neurotransmitters; Reactive oxygen species; Renin-angiotensin system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amitrole / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Catalase / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism*
  • Hypertension / chemically induced*
  • Male
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / blood
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism
  • Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / toxicity*


  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • catalase-polyethylene glycol
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Catalase
  • Amitrole