Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (rCMRO2) and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in nine cases of moyamoya disease in adults were studied with positron emission CT (PET) scan, using 15O steady-state methods. Three cases showed ischaemic symptoms and the other six cases showed haemorrhagic symptoms. PET scan was performed during the chronic stage. Control data were obtained from eight normal volunteers. Regional cerebral blood flow and other physiological parameters in cerebral gray matter, white matter and basal ganglia were compared with normal controls. All nine cases of Moyamoya disease showed decreased rCBF, though not significant, in cerebral gray matter, white matter and basal ganglia. Reduction of rCBF was significant in the cerebral cortex of six haemorrhagic cases. This significant decrease was considered to be due to diaschisis and also brain atrophy caused by the cerebral haemorrhage. There was a significant increase in rCBV in white matter of the both ischaemic and haemorrhagic cases. The calculated value of CBF/CBV is considered to be an index of perfusion pressure. This value was significantly decreased in all three regions, though rOEF was not significantly increased in moyamoya disease. Hence the cerebral circulation in adults with moyamoya disease appears to be characterized by a mild decrease in perfusion pressure and prolonged circulated time.