Are SGLT2 inhibitors reasonable antihypertensive drugs and renoprotective?

Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015 Jun;17(6):551. doi: 10.1007/s11906-015-0551-3.

Abstract

By eliminating glucose in the urine, the sodium-glucose-linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors act as osmotic diuretics to lower blood pressure in addition to reducing plasma glucose and assisting with weight loss. While not approved as antihypertensive agents, the ability of this new class of antihyperglycemic agents to lower blood pressure is not insubstantial, and while not used primarily for this indication, they may assist diabetic individuals in attaining currently recommended blood pressure targets. In addition to lowering systemic pressure, preclinical and exploratory human studies suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may also lower intraglomerular pressure, potentially reducing the rate of GFR decline in patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, given the lack of clinically meaningful endpoint data, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, primarily, as either antihypertensive or renoprotective agents would, at present, be premature. Fortunately, further insight will be garnered from large, randomized controlled trials that will assess the effects of various SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cytoprotection*
  • Diabetes Complications / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 / metabolism
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors*

Substances

  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors