Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the innate immune response to complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs), with TLR10 being the first family member known to have an inhibitory function. This study assessed the role of TLR10 in recognition of cSSSI-related pathogens and whether genetic variation in TLR10 influences susceptibility to cSSSIs.
Methods: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) preincubated with anti-TLR10 antibody and HEK-293 cells overexpressing TLRs were exposed to cSSSI pathogens, and cytokine secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 318 patients with cSSSI and 328 healthy controls were genotyped for 4 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR10, and functional consequences of the TLR10 SNPs were assessed via in vitro stimulation assays.
Results: PBMC stimulation with cSSSI pathogens in the presence of TLR10 neutralizing antibody significantly increased interleukin 6 secretion. Overexpression of TLR10 completely abrogated TLR2-induced interleukin 8 secretion by HEK-293 cells in response to cSSSI pathogens. Three polymorphisms in TLR10, I775L, I369L, and N241H, were associated with reduced susceptibility to cSSSIs. The presence of the TLR10 alleles 775L, 369L, or 241H increased interleukin 6 secretion by PBMCs in response to cSSSI pathogens.
Conclusions: TLR10 is a modulatory receptor of innate immune responses to cSSSI-related pathogens, and genetic variants in TLR10 are associated with protection against cSSSIs.
Keywords: Toll-like receptor 10; acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections; immunity, innate; polymorphism, single nucleotide; receptors, pattern recognition.
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