Flaxseed oil intake reduces serum small dense low-density lipoprotein concentrations in Japanese men: a randomized, double blind, crossover study

Nutr J. 2015 Apr 21:14:39. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0023-2.

Abstract

Background: The effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on cardiovascular risk factors considerably vary between published reports. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12-week supplementation with flaxseed oil (FO), which is a rich source of ALA, on cardiovascular risk factors such as serum small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) concentrations.

Methods: In a randomized, double blind, crossover study, 15 subjects ingested 10 g of FO or corn oil (CO), containing 5.49 g and 0.09 g of ALA, respectively, once daily with dinner. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4 and 12 weeks, and were used for analysis of serum lipid, lipid-related proteins, serum fatty acids and serum sd-LDL cholesterol. Differences during the test period were identified using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for within-group effects. Group differences were identified using paired t-test at each blood sampling time point.

Results: ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in the FO period at 4 and 12 weeks than in the CO period. No significant differences in docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were observed between two periods, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein and apolipoprotein B concentrations were significantly lower in the FO period than in the CO period at 12 weeks. FO supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in sd-LDL concentrations at 4 and 12 weeks, and CO supplementation had no effect. Moreover, sd-LDL concentrations were significantly lower in the FO period than in the CO period at 4 weeks. Among subjects with triglyceride (TG) concentrations of >100 mg/dl, FO supplementation markedly reduced sd-LDL concentrations at 4 and 12 weeks compared with baseline. Sd-LDL concentrations significantly differed between the periods at both 4 and 12 weeks.

Conclusion: This study indicates that the FO, which is a rich source of ALA, leads to lower sd-LDL cholesterol concentrations.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Apolipoproteins B / blood
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins / blood
  • Corn Oil / administration & dosage
  • Corn Oil / pharmacology
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / blood*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid / blood*
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Linseed Oil / administration & dosage*
  • Linseed Oil / chemistry
  • Linseed Oil / pharmacology*
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid / blood*

Substances

  • Apolipoproteins B
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Triglycerides
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids
  • Linseed Oil
  • Corn Oil
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid