Adherence to antibiotic treatment guidelines and outcomes in the hospitalized elderly with different types of pneumonia

Eur J Intern Med. 2015 Jun;26(5):330-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2015.04.002. Epub 2015 Apr 18.


Background: Few studies evaluated the clinical outcomes of Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) and Health Care-Associated Pneumonia (HCAP) in relation to the adherence of antibiotic treatment to the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) in hospitalized elderly people (65 years or older).

Methods: Data were obtained from REPOSI, a prospective registry held in 87 Italian internal medicine and geriatric wards. Patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia (ICD-9 480-487) or prescribed with an antibiotic for pneumonia as indication were selected. The empirical antibiotic regimen was defined to be adherent to guidelines if concordant with the treatment regimens recommended by IDSA/ATS for CAP, HAP, and HCAP. Outcomes were assessed by logistic regression models.

Results: A diagnosis of pneumonia was made in 317 patients. Only 38.8% of them received an empirical antibiotic regimen that was adherent to guidelines. However, no significant association was found between adherence to guidelines and outcomes. Having HAP, older age, and higher CIRS severity index were the main factors associated with in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The adherence to antibiotic treatment guidelines was poor, particularly for HAP and HCAP, suggesting the need for more adherence to the optimal management of antibiotics in the elderly with pneumonia.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Elderly; Guidelines adherence; Mortality; Pneumonia; Re-hospitalization.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence*
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Pneumonia / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia / etiology
  • Pneumonia / mortality
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents