Pharmaceutical spray freeze drying

Int J Pharm. 2015 Jul 5;488(1-2):136-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.04.053. Epub 2015 Apr 18.


Pharmaceutical spray-freeze drying (SFD) includes a heterogeneous set of technologies with primary applications in apparent solubility enhancement, pulmonary drug delivery, intradermal ballistic administration and delivery of vaccines to the nasal mucosa. The methods comprise of three steps: droplet generation, freezing and sublimation drying, which can be matched to the requirements given by the dosage form and route of administration. The objectives, various methods and physicochemical and pharmacological outcomes have been reviewed with a scope including related fields of science and technology.

Keywords: Lyophilisation; Porous particles; Protein formulations; Pulmonary application; Spray freeze drying; Vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols / chemistry*
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods*
  • Excipients / chemistry
  • Freeze Drying / methods*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Particle Size
  • Powders / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Solubility
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / administration & dosage


  • Aerosols
  • Excipients
  • Insulin
  • Powders
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Solvents
  • Vaccines
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A