This study determined if twice-daily consumption of a nutrient-dense bar intended to fill gaps in Western diets, without other dietary/lifestyle requirements, favorably shifted metabolic/anthropometric indicators of dysregulation in a healthy direction. Three 8-wk clinical trials in 43 healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW/OB) adults, who served as their own controls, were pooled for analysis. In less inflamed OW/OB [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) <1.5], statistically significant decreases occurred in weight (-1.1 ± 0.5 kg), waist circumference (-3.1 ± 1.4 cm), diastolic blood pressure (-4.1 ± 1.6 mmHg), heart rate [HR; -4.0 ± 1.7 beats per minute (bpm)], triglycerides (-72 ± 38.2 mg/dl), insulin resistance (homeostatic model of insulin resistance) (-0.72 ± 0.3), and insulin (-2.8 ± 1.3 mU/L); an increase in HDL-2b (+303 ± 116 nM) and realignment of LDL lipid subfractions toward a less atherogenic profile [decreased small LDL IIIb (-44 ± 23.5 nM), LDL IIIa (-99 ± 43.7 nM), and increased large LDL I (+66 ± 28.0 nM)]. In the more inflamed OW/OB (hsCRP >1.5), inflammation was reduced at 2 wk (-0.66 mg/L), and HR at 8 wk (-3.4 ± 1.3 bpm). The large HDL subfraction (10.5-14.5 nm) increased at 8 wk (+346 ± 126 nM). Metabolic improvements were also observed in lean participants. Thus, favorable changes in measures of cardiovascular health, insulin resistance, inflammation, and obesity were initiated within 8 wk in the OW/OB by replacing deficiencies in Western diets without requiring other dietary or lifestyle modifications; chronic inflammation blunted most improvements.
Keywords: HDL cholesterol; cardiovascular; dietary intervention; lipid particles; nutritional supplements.