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, 10 (4), e0125461
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The Tuning of Human Motor Response to Risk in a Dynamic Environment Task

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The Tuning of Human Motor Response to Risk in a Dynamic Environment Task

Amber Dunning et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

The role of motor uncertainty in discrete or static space tasks, such as pointing tasks, has been investigated in many experiments. These studies have shown that humans hold an internal representation of intrinsic and extrinsic motor uncertainty and compensate for this variability when planning movement. The aim of this study was to investigate how humans respond to uncertainties during movement execution in a dynamic environment despite indeterminate knowledge of the outcome of actions. Additionally, the role of errors, or lack thereof, in predicting risk was examined. In the experiment, subjects completed a driving simulation game on a two-lane road. The road contained random curves so that subjects were forced to use sensory feedback to complete the task and could not rely only on motor planning. Risk was manipulated by using horizontal perturbations to create the illusion of driving on a bumpy road, thereby imposing motor uncertainty, and altering the cost function of the road. Results suggest continual responsiveness to cost and uncertainty in a dynamic task and provide evidence that subjects avoid risk even in the absence of errors. The results suggest that humans tune their statistical motor behavior based on cost, taking into account probabilities of possible outcomes in response to environmental uncertainty.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1. Theoretical minimization of cost under uncertainty.
In Fig 1 (a)-(d), the shaded red distributions represent an uncertainty or variability in position. Grey bars signify penalty regions, the darker the grey, the higher the cost. The peaks of the curves illustrate the optimal position to minimize cost based on the standard deviation of uncertainty and the cost function. In (a) the loss function is symmetrical. The result is that there are two optimal positions that will minimize cost. Fig 1 (c) demonstrates the effect of increasing the cost of the outer boundary, dark grey regions, from left to right (1, 10, 100). The result is a shift in peaks toward the lower cost region in the center. Similarly, as the standard deviation of uncertainty increases from top to bottom (.35,. 75, 1) the optimal position again shifts toward the center lower cost region. At high standard deviation of uncertainty and high outer boundary cost, the optimal position becomes directly in the center of the middle region. Fig 1 (b) and (d) illustrate the same phenomenon for an asymmetrical loss function. Here the left boundary penalty remains very high (1000 points) while the right boundary in (d) increases from left to right (1, 10, 100). In this case there are no longer two optimal positions, only one in the segment that is farther away from the high cost.
Fig 2
Fig 2. iPad application screen view.
The subjects pressed the red start button to begin each trial (and were asked to not press the stop button during any trial). The time and velocity of the car was provided in the upper left hand corner of the screen. The three regions of speed are labeled in the figure with circles. Region 1 produced acceleration to maximum speed of 1100 pixels/sec; region 2 decelerated the car to 550 pixels/sec; region 3 immediately stopped the car to 2 pixels/sec. Cost functions: (A) symmetric low-cost, (B) asymmetric, (C) symmetric high-cost.
Fig 3
Fig 3. Raw Population position data.
Plots are the histograms of the pooled subject data for each task type (by row) and uncertainty level (by column). The dashed lines are the kernel densities of the data and the solid lines are the bimodal Gaussian fits (see methods). Green lines represent the position Gaussian near grass (low-cost) while blue represents a position peak near water (high cost). In the asymmetric task, the bottom row, it can be seen that subjects maintained a position far away from the side with water. The x-axis represents the position of the center of the car on the road in pixels. (The road is 500 pixels wide, and the car is 40 pixels, so the subject ran off the road at ±230 pixels.) These images depict a trend similar to Fig 1. As the outer boundary costs increased, the subjects moved toward the center of the road. Similarly, as the standard deviation of uncertainty increased, subjects also moved toward the center of the road.
Fig 4
Fig 4. Continuous position probability distribution as a function of uncertainty.
Variables of bimodal Gaussian fits (μ1, μ2, σ1, σ2, and p) from Fig 3 were interpolated (using cubic spline interpolation) across noise levels. This demonstrates an estimate of the probability of where on the road a subject will be at any given instant as a function of motor noise.
Fig 5
Fig 5. Box plot of subjects’ average trial times.
Dashes indicate the average time each subject took to complete that task. Notice in general the distribution is greater for higher risk tasks indicating the differences in subjects’ risk awareness. The increase in distribution with increased motor noise demonstrates that some subjects were more adept than others at playing the game. The asterisk indicates the only pair of trial times that were not significantly different.
Fig 6
Fig 6. Regression on the distance from the center of the road subjects maintained vs. level of motor noise.
Points indicate the mean distance from the center of the road of all subjects derived from the peaks of the fitted probability density functions (see methods) for each task type and uncertainty level. As motor noise increased, subjects’ position shifted proportionally toward the center of the road. Position is normalized to 250 pixels so 0 is the center of the road and 1 is the edge of the road. Errors bars indicate the standard error of subjects. Solid lines represent the linear regressions fit for each task type. Asterisks indicate the pairs of values with insignificant differences.
Fig 7
Fig 7. Proportional hazard model of successful trials.
Points indicate total percentage of successful trials for all subjects at each level of uncertainty, where a successful trial is defined as a trial during which the subject never ran off the road. (The green line represents the symmetric low-cost task, the black line is the asymmetric task, and the blue line indicates the symmetric high-cost task.) At all uncertainty levels, failed trials occurred more than twice as often in the asymmetric task than in the low-cost task. That is that subjects stayed so far away from the water that they hit the grass on the opposite side of the road much more frequently.

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