Levels of perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk in Jordan: the impact of sociodemographic characteristics

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Aug;22(16):12415-23. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4462-2. Epub 2015 Apr 24.


There is scarcity in literature in regards to the exact levels of such compounds in the Middle Eastern region including Jordan. This study was conducted to measure the presence and levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluoroocane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) in human milk and local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan and also to investigate the relationship between levels of PFASs and some sociodemographic characteristics of breastfeeding mothers and their infants as well as usage of Teflon kitchenware products. Seventy-nine milk samples were collected from breastfeeding women and 25 samples from local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan. Levels of PFOS and PFOA were liquid/liquid extracted (LLE) by acetone followed by purification on an Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid-phase extraction (SPE). Separations and detections were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 10 ng/L for both PFOA and PFOS. The measured concentrations ranged between non-detectable (ND) and 178 ng/L for PFOS and between 24 and 1120 ng/L for PFOA in human milk and between ND-178 ng/L and LOQ-160 ng/L in fresh cow milk, respectively. Median concentrations of PFOS in human milk samples from Jordan in this study were lower than those found in a recent study from Italy. Moreover, mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in milk samples provided by older women. Also, mean concentrations of PFOA was much higher in multiparas and those who have younger infants. The mean rank of PFOA was twice as high in the milk of women who had older Teflon products in kitchen compared to those who had relatively new Teflon products.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alkanesulfonic Acids / analysis*
  • Animals
  • Caprylates / analysis*
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Cooking and Eating Utensils / statistics & numerical data
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Fluorocarbons / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Jordan
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene / chemistry
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Solid Phase Extraction


  • Alkanesulfonic Acids
  • Caprylates
  • Fluorocarbons
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • perfluorooctanoic acid
  • perfluorooctane sulfonic acid