Cardiometabolic Risk, Socio-Psychological Factors, and Trajectory of Grip Strength Among Older Japanese Adults

J Aging Health. 2015 Oct;27(7):1123-46. doi: 10.1177/0898264315577587. Epub 2015 Apr 22.


Objective: To examine the association between cardiometabolic risk (percent body fat [BF%], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), socio-psychological factors (education and self-rated health [SRH]), and trajectories of grip strength (GS) in older adults.

Method: Longitudinal 8-year data from 1,381 Japanese adults aged 65 years or above were analyzed using hierarchical linear models, stratified according to gender.

Results: GS declined following a linear trajectory. In both genders, higher BF% was associated with weaker GS, but not with the rate of decline. GS trajectory did not correlate with baseline TG, HDL-C, or HbA1c. Cardiometabolic factors mediated educational differences in GS intercept in both genders. In women, better SRH predicted stronger GS. The effect of SRH was robust to adjustments for cardiometabolic risk.

Discussion: In older adults, GS and its rate of decline are selectively associated with both cardiometabolic risk and socio-psychological characteristics. Cardiometabolic risk mediates educational disparities in GS but not differences in subjective assessments of health.

Keywords: Japan; aging; cardiometabolic risk factors; grip strength.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue
  • Aged
  • Body Composition
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Diagnostic Self Evaluation*
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Hand Strength / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Triglycerides
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human