The pineal hormone melatonin influences insulin secretion, as well as glucagon and somatostatin secretion, both in vivo and in vitro. These effects are mediated by two specific, high-affinity, seven transmembrane, pertussis toxin-sensitive, Gi-protein-coupled melatonin receptors, MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the β-cells, α-cells as well as δ-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion, leading to inhibition of the adenylate cyclase-dependent cyclic adenosine monophosphate as well as cyclic guanosine monophosphate formation in pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting the soluble guanylate cyclase, probably via MT2 receptors. In this way, melatonin also likely inhibits insulin secretion, whereas using the inositol triphosphate pathway after previous blocking of Gi-proteins by pertussis toxin, melatonin increases insulin secretion. Desynchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genomewide association studies pinpointing variances of the MT2 receptor as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. As melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. Observations of the circadian expression of clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Per1,2,3, and Cry1,2) in pancreatic islets, as well as in INS1 rat insulinoma cells, may indicate that circadian rhythms are generated in the β-cells themselves. The circadian secretion of insulin from pancreatic islets is clock-driven. Disruption of circadian rhythms and clock function leads to metabolic disturbances, for example, type 2 diabetes. The study of melatonin-insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship between these two hormones. Both type 2 diabetic rats and patients exhibit decreased melatonin levels and slightly increased insulin levels, whereas type 1 diabetic rats show extremely reduced levels or the absence of insulin, but statistically significant increases in melatonin levels. Briefly, an increase in melatonin levels leads to a decrease in stimulated insulin secretion and vice versa. Melatonin levels in blood plasma, as well as the activity of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis, AA-NAT (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase) in pineal, are lower in type 2 diabetic rats compared to controls. In contrast, melatonin and pineal AA-NAT mRNA are increased and insulin receptor mRNA is decreased in type 1 diabetic rats, which also indicates a close relationship between insulin and melatonin. As an explanation, it was hypothesized that catecholamines, which reduce insulin levels and stimulate melatonin synthesis, control insulin-melatonin interactions. This conviction stems from the observation that catecholamines are increased in type 1 but are diminished in type 2 diabetes. In this context, another important line of inquiry involves the fact that melatonin protects β-cells against functional overcharge and, consequently, hinders the development of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: clock genes; experimental and clinical aspects; glucagon; insulin; melatonin; melatonin receptors; type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.