Background: The primary cause of death of hemodialysis (HD) patients is cardiovascular disease, and increased oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of olmesartan on oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, indoxyl sulfate, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which are known to be present at higher concentrations in the blood of HD patients, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
Methods: Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the mean fluorescence intensity of CM-H2DCFCA, an ROS-sensitive fluorescent dye, in HUVECs. HUVECs were incubated with each of the above compounds in the presence or absence of olmesartan. Moreover, these oxidant-stimulated cells were also treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or PKC inhibitor calphostin C. In addition, we investigated the effects of olmesartan on cytotoxicity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, which is involved in vascular inflammation in HUVECs induced by AOPP or H2O2.
Results: The treatment of these oxidant-stimulated cells with olmesartan resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular ROS production to an extent that was nearly equivalent to that of NAC, DPI or calphostin C. Furthermore, olmesartan reduced the cytotoxicity and VEGF secretion induced by AOPP or H2O2.
Conclusions: These results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of olmesartan might contribute to both its vasculoprotective and anti-hypertensive effects.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Endothelial cell; Hemodialysis; Olmesartan; Oxidative stress.