Small Cell Carcinomas of the Bladder Highly Express Somatostatin Receptor Type 2A: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment--A Multicenter Study of Urooncology Society, Turkey

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2016 Apr;24(4):253-60. doi: 10.1097/PAI.0000000000000188.


Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. Neuroendocrine carcinomas expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTR) in other viscera such as lung, pancreas, and gastrointestinal system respond to therapy with somatostatin analogs. In the present study, expressions of SSTRs 1 to 5 including type 2A are investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and their relationship with clinicopathologic factors was evaluated. Hundred primary bladder SmCC cases were collected from 12 centers in Turkey. Forty-three cases were pure SmCC. Other cases had mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma as a second component. The percentage of the SmCC component ranged from 5% to 100%. SSTR-2A expression was membranous, whereas the other receptors showed cytoplasmic staining. The percentages of positive cases for SSTR-1, SSTR-2A, SSTR-3, SSTR-4, and SSTR-5 were 4% (3/75), 61.4% (54/88), 2.4% (2/84), 24.4% (20/82), and 6.25% (5/80), respectively. The percentage of SmCC component was positively correlated with the percentage of SSTR-2A expression (P=0.003) while negatively correlated with patient age (P=0.032). SSTR-2A expression was correlated with survival as a bad prognostic factor (P=0.018). SSTR-1, SSTR-3, SSTR-4, and SSTR-5 expressions did not show any statistical significance with any parameter. In conclusion, although the limited number of cases with adequate term follow-up, SSTR-2A expression could be a prognostic factor and somatostatin analogs therapeutic candidate for SmCCs of the bladder as these tumors show high percentage of SSTR-2A expression.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Receptors, Somatostatin
  • somatostatin receptor 2